What kinds of lamps exist?
According to the principle of their operation the lamps are subdivided into incandescent lamps and gas-discharge lamps.
There are two types of incandescent lamps: standard (the lamp bulb is filled with vacuum or inert gas, the light source is an incandescent tungsten spiral) and halogen lamps (the gas in the bulb contains small additives of halogens or their compounds).
An incandescent lamp is the cheapest from the viewpoint of primary expenses, and up till recently it was in the biggest demand. However, an incandescent lamp is at the same time the most uneconomical: about 98 % of the produced energy is spent for heating of the environment. Also it has a short service life - not more that 1 thousand hours of continuous work.
By the construction and operation principle, halogen lamps are incandescent lamps. However, addition of halogens significantly reduces vaporization of luminous element and sedimentation of tungsten in the form of dark stains on the glass internal surface, which allows to greatly increase (2-5 times in comparison with an incandescent lamp) a service life of the lamp and to reduce the bulb size. Halogen lamps have a higher light efficiency at lower power inputs. Moreover, unlike incandescent lamps, a luminous flux in halogen lamps does not reduce within all their service life.
In up-to-date halogen lamps also use is made of special bulb coating that reflects infra-red radiation. Due to this, a light efficiency of the lamp increases additionally. "Kosmos" brand offers more than 40 models of halogen lamps of three types: lamps with a reflector, spot lamps without reflector, and linear lamps.
Discharge lamps are the lamps producing light as a result of electric discharge in a gas, metal vapors, or in a mixture of gas and metal vapors. There are high pressure and low pressure discharge lamps.
Mercury, sodium and metal halide lamps belong to the class of high pressure lamps. Sodium and mercury lamps are used, as a rule, only in lanterns designed for outdoor lighting and for floodlight projectors in artistic architectural lighting of buildings. Metal halide lamps are widely used both for outdoor and interior lighting. Lanterns with metal halide lamps are applied, in particular, for bright lighting of rooms with high ceilings.
Fluorescent lamps belong to a type of low pressure discharge lamps. A fluorescent lamp is a cylindrical tube with electrodes, the tube is pumped with mercury vapors and inert gas - argon. An internal surface of the tube is coated with a special substance - luminophore. First, an electrical discharge influencing the mercury vapors generates invisible ultra-violet radiation which is then transformed by the luminofore into light visible by a human eye.
In recent years, compact fluorescent lamps (energy-saving lamps) gain popularity very quickly. These lamps have nothing similar with their cumbersome predecessors. A whole range of technological improvements allowed to create a practically new type of fluorescent lamps with unique potentialities.
"Kosmos" brand produces about 190 models of 20 types of compact fluorescent lamps. Compact fluorescent lamps, halogen, metal halide and LED lamps make up a group of economical light sources and find their application field depending on their individual particular features and advantages.